Compass Surveying: In this surveying, a compass is used to determine the direction of survey lines, and the length of survey lines is measured by a chain or tape.

3 Types of Chain in Surveying. The surveying activities are. Direct Method | Chain Surveying. P and Q are two points at equal distances from O. the distance between OP and OQ can be conveniently chosen. LOWER PLATE: It consists of lower clamp screw and tangent screw.

III. Harikesh Yadav May 30, 2017. Author: Dr. D. Tamil Mani, Dr. V. M. Abdul Hakkim. no angular A measuring tool developed in the 1620s. The chain survey is preferred when the ground is nearly flat and open and also when the area to be surveyed is smaller.

A land surveyor uses instruments to make precise measurements of the earths surface. Engineers Chain : A 100 feet long chain consisting of 100 links each of 1 feet is known as engineers chain. Surveying is classified based on various criteria including the instruments used, purpose, the area surveyed and the method used. Rods are commonly used in early highway right-of way descriptions. The measurements in chain surveying are linear- angular measurements are not considered. Moreover, it provides fairly accurate result provided that the work is conducted carefully. Chain surveying is suitable for small areas with few details. 1.2 INTRODUCTION Surveying has been important since the beginning of civilization. Instruments used in this method are required to have provision for the measurement of the variable interval between the stadia hairs.

Below is a summary of eight different types of surveying equipment and their uses: 1. Classes of Survey-Based on Instrument. Triangulation is the principle of chain surveying.

Classification Based On Instrument Used i. Chain/Tape Survey: This is the simple method of taking the linear measurement using a chain or tape with no angular measurements made. Chain or Ranging Rods 5. Write the different It is mostly adapted for small and medium-scale mapping where great accuracy is not required. The purpose of this kind of simplification is to reduce the complexity in the subsequent processing of the survey data. To support the main part of the instrument. Instruments Used for Measuring Distance: 1. Commonly used for measuring fields in cadastral Survey. An early surveying instrument which was used to measure and lay off angles and establish lines of sight by employing peep sights. The main advantage of plane table surveying is that the topographic features to be mapped are in full view. These surveys are of high precision and extend over large areas. 2. These variances are known as errors and will need to be reduced or eliminated to maintain specific survey standards. 12/17/2017 SURVEYING and LEVELLING 49 INSTRUMENTS FOR SETTING RIGHT ANGLES For taking right-angled offsets, instruments used are cross staff, optical square, prism square. 9 . The length of the chain is measured from the outside Transits are used to measure horizontal and vertical angles. 3.2 Steel Band or Band Chain. Types of Surveys: Geodetic Surveying: The type of surveying that takes into account the true shape of the earth. The source of the term "chain" is frequently used in tape and steel tape measurements in surveying. Full PDF instrument from the case, carefully grip it with both hands, but do not grip the vertical circle standard or where pressure will be exerted on tubular or circular level vials. Engineers chain. Part 650 Engineering Field Handbook Chapter 1 Surveying 1viii (210VIEFH, October 2008) Figure 114 Calculating horizontal latitude and longitude coordinates 126 from survey data Figure 115 Distance measured as either horizontal or slope distance 126 Figure 116 Odometer wheel 127 Figure 117 Breaking chain 128 Figure 118 Digital laser EDM 130 No angle measuring instrument is used, and the directions of the lines are fixed entirely by liner measurements.

Here are 5 of the earliest surveying tools: 1.

(ii) A metallic tape 20 m or 30 m in length. It is 20 or 30 m long and is made from ribbon of steel 16 mm wide. Language: English. of Triangles and trapezoids. Plane table Survey. What Instruments are Used in Chain Surveying? Execution of photogrammetric and field surveys for the collection of required data including topographic and hydrographic data, 3.

This is the instrument used for setting out right angles to a chain It has a vertical circle or arc. Gunters Chain. It consists of an iron and brass bar each 10 ft 1.5 in long, fixed together at the middle by means of two steel pins. From determining property boundaries to preparing construction sites, surveyors rely on certain equipment to do their jobs properly. Metric chain.

EXERCISE 1 INSTRUMENTS AND TECHNIQUES -CHAIN SURVEYING Aim: Study of various instruments used in chain surveying. Equipment and Accessories: Chain, Tape, Arrows, Ranging rods, Cross-staff and Pegs. Principle: Chain and Tape are used for linear measurement in horizontal plane. Pegs. The Gunters chain is 1/80th of a mile or 66 feet long. 8. Ranging rod. All the ten bases of great trigonometrical survey of india were measured with the Colbys apparatus. Surveying MCQ Question 10. (530) 225-8155 inquiry@surveying.com. A path of chain or tape is stretched out from P. The plane table is an instrument used for surveying by a graphical method in which the field work and plotting are done simultaneously. To attach the theodolite to the tripod. 3. INTRODUCTION TO SURVEYING 1.1. Gnters Chain. PLANE TABLE One of the oldest types of surveying instruments used in field mapping. 2 Parts of Chains used in Surveying. One Link = .66' Figure 1: Surveyors Chain The early surveyors chain used the English length of Acre = 10 square chains 10 chains = 660' 66' 660' x 66' = 43,560 sqft (acre) Figure 2: Surveyors Chain Other multiples of the chain are still in use today. UPPER PLATE: The upper plate is attached to the inner axis and it carries two verniers. In plane table surveying the fieldwork and plotting is done using a graphical method. are done in the office. EUROPE, MIDDLE EAST, AFRICA. Describe the importance of surveying 3. know the application of surveying in environmental health activities. Calculation, reduction and plotting of survey data for use in engineering design . Based on the instrument used; surveys can be classified into; i) Chain tape surveys ii) Compass surveys iii) Plane table surveys iv) Theodolite surveys Surveyor's chain. As it is inconvenient to measure the stadia interval On-chain surveying, we follow triangulation methods. The distances determined by chaining form the basis of all surveying. 10. Main stations are the end of lines that determine the boundary of the surveying. View surveying LAB1.pdf from MATH MISC at Ramon Magsaysay Memorial Colleges, Gen. Santos City. The brass handles in swivel joint are provided at the ends. The main pieces of surveying equipment in use around the world are the following: theodolite, measuring tape, total station, 3D scanners, GPS/GNSS, level and rod. provided with handles for dragging the chain on the ground, each wire with a swivel joint so that the chain can be turned without twisting. It is most suitable for small and medium scale-mapping (1:10000 to 1:250000). 2. The whole of the work is done with the chain and tape. No matter how accurately angles may be measured, the survey can be no more precise than the chaining. Chain Survey Linear surveying which include the use of chain or tape to measure distances Is conducted using different lengths of chains specifically Surveyor's compass. H Procedure of Chain Surveying In Chain Surveying, the whole area to be surveyed is divided into framework of triangles of suitable sizes. Network of triangles is selected as these are simple geometrical figures which can be easily plotted with the measurements of its sides only. 4. In the device, each link is a solid bar. Measurements would then be recorded until an endpoint was met. Chain Surveying.pdf - Chain Surveying Measurements \u2022 Linear \u2022 Angular \u2022 Direct \u2022 Indirect \u2022 Optical means \u2022 Electromagnetic methods \u2022. BASIC SURVEYING INSTRUMENTS NAME: GUNTER'S CHAIN/SURVEYORS Chains and Tapes. This chain consisted of 100 links and can reach up to about 66 feet. The most common surveyors chain was 66 feet long and made up of 100 links.

(iii) About one dozen ranging rods (the

Holding the ends of chain or tape at P and Q, take the middle point of the tape and pull it strait so that there are equal length of the tape on each side and the chain or The map is drawn to some suitable scale. The aim of surveying is to prepare a map to show the relative positions of the objects on the surface of the earth. Download Solution PDF. Updated 2017/07/30 at 5:12 PM. 2. Preparation of surveys and related mapping specifications . Walk the whole area and thoroughly examine the ground, note the position of Colby apparatus-. +49/6301-711414 order_admin_kaiserslautern@trimble.com. AIM : Locating various object by chain & cross staff survey APPARATUS: Chain, Ranging rod, Arrows, Cross-staff, Metallic Survey (Tape) THEORY: Cross-Staff is the simplest instrument Contact your account representative. The Gunter's chain is also divided into 100. links each link is 7.92 inches. Reply. It is composed of 100 links, with a link being 0.66 feet or 7.92 A Transit is a surveying instrument having a horizontal circle divided into degrees, minutes, and seconds. Invented by the English mathematician Edmund Gunter in the early 17th century, Gunters chain is exactly 22 yards (about 20 m) long and divided into 100 links.

2. Pegs. #1. Surveying done by a magnetic bearing compass instrument using a traverse method of calculation is known as compass surveying.

Pages in category "Surveying instruments" Groma (surveying) Gunter's chain; Gyrotheodolite; H. Heliotrope (instrument) Hilger & Watts; I. Inclinometer; Invar; J. Jacob's staff; L. Laser level; Laser line level;

2. TYPES OF LEVEL INSTRUMENTS The level is an instrument with a telescope and bubble tube which is used for measuring differences in elevation between various points. Chain 2. The path length of chain or tape depends on the steepness of the ground. General 5-2.

We hope students all over the world will find it helpful. Surveyor Semester 2 Module 2: Theodolite Survey Reviewed and updated on: 01st November 2019 Version 1.1 NIMI Question Bank Page 5 of 26 A: Single plane method B: Double plane method C: Single plane, height of instrument are same D: Single plane, height of instrument different level 44 : What is the position of instrument in trigonometric levelling? of an actual chain made of individual links. The following instruments are used while chaining: 1. Chain surveying is one of the methods of land surveying. and also arterial features such as roads, buildings, canals, towns etc. 1. Besides these, the other drawing instruments like a pencil, rubber, scales, etc., are also required for plane table survey. The angle of two lines would be derived by using a magnetic meridian reference line (magnetic bearing of a line). Compass Survey. vrvagadia says: March 30, 2016 at 3:14 am. Arrows. The pegs are made up with wood and they used to mark the survey positions or terminals. The following instruments are used while chaining: Chains; Tapes; Arrows; Ranging rods and offset rods; Pegs; Plumb-bob . Plane Surveying: The type of surveying in which the mean surface 4-14. Here in we have gathered some pdf lectures on surveying. Chain traversing (by chain angle)-In this method. iv) Archeological survey is carried out to discover and map ancient/relies of antiquity. 100.5 m. 100.3 m. 100.1 m. 99.9 m. Answer (Detailed Solution Below) A 100 m tape is suspended between the ends under a pull of 200 N. If the weight of the tape is 30 N, the correct distance between the tape ends will be nearly. Most survey instruments screw onto a tripod when in use. 1. Theodolite Survey. as a' b' = ab = i. #1. It shows the natural features of a country, such as towns, villages, roads, railways, rivers, etc. The following pdf lecture is created by GAURAV. In the chain survey, only measurements are taken in the field, and the rest work, such as plotting calculation, etc. Here only The equipment required in chain surveying includes the following: (i) A chain with a set of ten arrows. Instruments used in Chain Survey. Offset Rods. The horizontal distances are usually measured with a measuring tape or chain. It is the type of surveying in which only linear measurements are made, no angular measurements are Chain . 1.4. In survey, a theodolite is an instrument mounted with a moveable telescope, used for precise measurements of horizontal and vertical angles. surveying, a means of making relatively large-scale, accurate measurements of the Earths surfaces.

In practice, the links are pinned to the ground and were stretched out to define a path. Surveying is classified based on various criteria including the instruments used, purpose, the area surveyed and the method used. Chain Surveying - Instruments used in Chaining - Engineering Basic Want to learn more? Survey data is portrayed graphically by the construction of maps, profiles, cross sections, and diagrams. Plane table is used for the purpose. The following are among the most important instruments which are used in Chain surveying: Chain ; Arrows; Pegs; Ranging rods; Offset rods; Plasters laths and whites; Plumb

it is easier and quicker method ,but not very accurate .if Arrows (Arrows in Surveying). 2. Chain . surveyors chain, also called Gunters chain, measuring device and arbitrary measurement unit still widely used for surveying in English-speaking countries. are done in the office.

Various methods used for linear measurements may be grouped as: (i) Approximate (ii) Using chain or tape (iii) By optical means and (iv) Using electromagnetic distance measurement instruments. Levelling. Introduction Chain surveying is the branch of surveying in which only linear measurements are made in the field. Chain Survey is conducted using different lengths of chains specifically made for the surveying purpose. Revenue Chain. 3.1.2.5 Setups Instruments for setting out perpendiculars 5-4-1.Chain or tape 5-4-2. Cross staff.

Tape. What are the instruments used for a chain surveying? Tripod: Tripod is also required for plain table survey. 12.1.1 Approximates Methods of Linear Measurements These methods are used in reconnaissance survey or to detect major mistakes committed while measuring with Measuring instruments used for surveying. Based on the Offset Staff / Rods. Photographic and Aerial Surveys. O is the point on the chain line MN where a perpendicular line is to be erected. As follows. Instruments used in Surveying. 1.2.1. Descriptive cross-sectional survey research was used in collecting data at one point in time for a sample selected to represent a larger population. Topographical Survey. Procedure. Chain Surveying: Its Procedure, Instruments, and Principles. There are two major types of stations in chain surveying: 1. Types of Measuring Tapes in Surveying . Triangulation requires that the area to be surveyed should be divided into number of small triangles. A chain line is run through the center of area which divided into a no. It consists an upper clamp screw and tangent screws. What are the instruments required for a chain survey? AIM : Locating various object by chain & cross staff survey APPARATUS: Chain, Ranging rod, Arrows, Cross-staff, Metallic Survey (Tape) THEORY: Cross-Staff is the simplest instrument used for setting out perpendicular i.e taking offsets from a chain line. regardless of the survey instrument or method used. Cloth or linen tape Surveying is basically conducted for measuring the linear parameters as well as the angular parameters for the establishment of points by means of which the plans and maps can be prepared. This is suitable for the survey of small areas with simple details and an area The various instrument used for the determination of the length of the line by chaining are as follows Metric surveying chain Tapes Arrows Pegs Ranging rods Offset rods Chain, 20m or 30m long. Pages: 170. Tripod is used to fix the drawing board. Object of surveying. Analog or digital tape measures are often used for measurement of smaller distances. Classification on the Basis of Instruments Used. The surveyor inspects the area to be surveyed, survey or prepares index sketch or key plan. Classification Based On Instrument Used i. Chain/Tape Survey: This is the simple method of Plotting work with conventional signs QUESTIONS 4 Chapter 5 CROSS STAFF CHAIN SURVEYING AND INSTRUMENTS 5-1. 3.1 Metric Chain.

Levelling is a process of determining the height of one level relative to another. Early chains were wood; later ones were made of iron.

Here only linear measurements are made i.e. Leveling: the instrument has to be leveled if it is used as in hand or mounted over a tripod. Land Survey can be further divided into: 1. The ratio (f / i) is a constant orf a particular instrument and is known as stadia interval factor, also instrument constant.

Arrows 3. Plumb SURVEY 1 PRACTICAL REPORT ON LINEAR MEASUREMENT AND LEVELLING Academia.edu uses cookies to personalize content, tailor ads and improve the user experience.

3.4 Engineers Chain. Range Rod (Ranging Rod). Wikimedia Commons has media related to Surveying instruments. There are three basic types of level instruments, namely: 1) Dumpy Levels 2) Engineers Tilting Levels The follower holds the zero end of the chain at P and directs the leader at P1 to be in the line of PQ and stretch the chain or tape above the ground in horizontal line. Tapes are made of different materials: 1. Chain Survey. Pole (surveying) Prism (surveying) (corner cube retroreflector) Prismatic compass (angle measurement) Ramsden surveying instruments. Ranging rod. Surveyor's chain. Tachymeter (surveying) Tape (surveying) Tellurometer. Basic principle 5-4. Chain survey is the simplest method of surveying. Supply Chain - India - Supply Chain - India Allogistx International Inc. 2130 Huntington Drive suit 205 South Pasadena, CA 91030 info@Allogistx.com Office: 323.254.9550 | PowerPoint PPT The Earliest Surveying Instruments. Procedure for carrying out chain survey 4-16. It is used in surveying to establish the elevation of a point relative to a datum, or to establish a point at a given elevation relative to a datum. Plane Surveying Plane surveying simplifies the survey in that it treats the surface as a flat plane.

4. 30 CUSTOMER SERVICE. lab #3: survey of an area by chain survey (closed traverse) 8 lab #4: chaining across obstacles 10 lab #5: chain surveying (mapping by tape) 15 lab #6: study of level and levelling staff 18 lab Compass Survey. The dioptra, which was perfected by Heron of Alexandria, was used in leveling and for measuring horizontal and vertical angles. Purpose 5-3. Chain or tape, Arrows, Pegs, Ranging rods, Offset rods, Laths or whites, Plumb bob, Cross staff and Mallet. A good knowledge of chain surveying is therefore essential to a proper knowledge of surveying as a Prism (surveying) (corner cube retroreflector) Prismatic compass (angle measurement) Ramsden surveying instruments. Chain or Tape. Instrument # 1. As the name itself suggests, the compass is used for the purpose of the survey. Offset Rod 6. A rod is 1/4 of a chain or 16.5 feet. 2Engr.Shams Ul Islam (shams@cecos.edu.pk) 3. #civilengineering #civil #surveying #chainsurvey #practical #fieldwork #instrumentsusedinchainsurveying A furlong, used in horse racing, is 10 chains, or 660 feet. Tie (Subsidiary) Stations. Which method is more accurate in plain table and chain survey. Plane Tabling. Theodolite Survey. It is denoted by K and thus d = K.s ----- Equation (23.1) The horizontal distance (D) between the center of the instrument and the station point (Q) at which the staff is held is d + f + c. It is also called the band chain and is used for accurate survey work. Steel band chain. In chain survey, only measurements are taken in the field, and the rest work, such as plotting calculation etc. Angles fixed by tie measurements or linear are known as chain angles. Wooden or Iron Pegs. LEARNING OBJECTIVES At the end of this chapter, students will be able to: 1. 2. CUSTOMER SERVICE.

These triangles should be 1. Tapes 4. Some of the important equipment used in surveying include theodolite, compass, auto-level, chains, tapes, leveling staff, total station, etc. Determine natural features of a country such as hills, valleys, lakes woods etc. This survey is carried out to locate the boundaries of a field and to determine its area. Hammer. NORTH, CENTRAL & SOUTH AMERICA, APAC. Civil Engineering-Surveying and Leveling 362 Important MCQ PDF. In general, surveying can be broken down into two general types: plane surveying and geodetic surveying. What is Chain Surveying? ii. Instruments for Chaining: The various instruments used for the

It is in one of the important plane table survey instruments without it is impossible to do plain table survey. This chain is used to measure length in feet and area in sq.yard. Similar to the ranging rod, they are usually 3 m long and is divided into Instruments required in chain survey 4-15. The length of the chain is 66 feet. 1 link is equal to 1/100 of a chain or 7.92 inches. The horizontal This was designed by Major General Colby. TYPES OF LEVEL INSTRUMENTS The level is an instrument with a telescope and bubble tube which is used for measuring differences in elevation between various points. chain consists of 100 links each one a foot long and at every 10 links a tally. 3.5 Revenue surveying, some operations of chain surveying occur in other methods of surveying. Define surveying and other technical terms 2. It includes the determination of the measurement data, the reduction and interpretation of the data to usable form, and, conversely, the establishment of relative position and size according to given measurement requirements. 5. Tachymeter Main stations. Types of Surveys: Geodetic Surveying: The type of surveying that takes into account