In particular, our analysis focuses on the study of spherical matter perturbations, as they decouple from the background expansion, "turn around" and finally collapse. The experiment triggered what scientists call a quantum vacuum collapse. Reminder: For a given expansion rate, there is a critical energy density, W o, for which the geometry is flat. This simple calculation resolves the ~122 orders of magnitude vacuum catastrophe between cosmology Then we discuss three apparent paradoxes arising in this work that are in various stages of resolution. The gravitational collapse of a spherically symmetric massive core of a star in which the fluid component is interacting with a growing vacuum energy density filling a FLRW type geometry with an arbitrary curvature parameter is investigated. 2 . We point out how to nd the cut-o energy density and pressure most directly from a Green function. By summing the numbers in the exponents of the densities of the quantum vacuum energy density (93) and the vacuum energy density at cosmological scale (30), we obtain the orders of magnitude that separate the two densities: 93+30 = 121. Our main motivations is to find out the final outcomes of gravitational collapse of the spherical symmetric star in the background of growing vacuum energy density (t). We consider the gravitational collapse of a spherical symmetric star. With Hubbles law, which gives the Hubble constant H 0, we can calculate the cosmological vacuum energy density, also known as the critical density of the Universe crit, using the expression crit = 3 H 0 2 / (8 G) where G is the gravitational constant and Hubbles constant is the current observed value of H 0 = 67.4 (km/s)/Mpc, with an uncertainty of 0.5 Vacuum Energy, or Einsteins Blunder. an extraordinarily large vacuum constant arises[6]. Vacuum Energy Density and Gravity 3 and found that the calculation was most easily done by ignoring the charges in the plates in favor of the energy of the electromagnetic eld in the gap. Where m is the mass of an object (in kilograms) and c is the speed of light in meters per second. (now, W o ~ 10-26 kg/m3, about 10 protons per cubic meter) In a fixed-density picture, the energy density causes the expansion to accelerate. Therein, thermodynamics arguments have been employed to derive how the energy density u depends on the temperature T, for a fluid whose pressure p obeys the equation of state p = ( 1) u, where is a constant. The energy density in the classical electromagnetism theory is: Vacuum energy is the background energy that exists in the universe. Author links open overlay panel Hasrat Hussain Shah a b c Farook Rahaman Hasrat Hussain Shah a b c Farook Rahaman It Definition of true vs. false vacuum. If the cosmological constant is negative, recollapse always occurs; recollapse is also possible with a positive v if m >> v.

We consider the gravitational collapse for closed, flat, and hyperbolic spacetime geometry (k = 1, 0,1). To find out how much energy the vacuum contains, we need to calculate its energy density. Similarly, when looking at the exterior energy available in terms of Planck voxels on the surface horizon of a spherical shell universe it was found to equate exactly with the critical density of the Universe without requiring the addition of dark matter and dark energy. A vacuum is defined as a space with as little energy in it as possible. It is possible that a physical vacuum state is a configuration of and does not make any Define the vacuum state as the state with no photons in any mode. In a simple fixed-mass picture the mass density causes the expansion to decelerate. The world with everything and everyone on it has simply ceased to exist. This plot shows the different possibilities for the cosmological expansion as a function of matter density and vacuum energy. So, the rate at which the vacuum makes the expansion of the universe accelerate is proportional to 2 From this, it follows that if the vacuum has positive energy density, the expansion of the universe will tend to speed up! This is what people see. And, vacuum energy is currently the most plausible explanation known for what's going on. We consider the full general-relativistic treatment of this problem and obtain exact solutions for various forms However we are seeing accelerating expansion, with an extremely small cosmological constant and negative pressure would The complete set of exact solutions for all values of the free parameters are obtained, and the influence of the curvature term on the One of the stranger consequences of quantum mechanics is that even empty space has energy. The radiation era, where the vacuum energy is annulled, is recovered in a natural manner. Gravitational collapse of an anisotropic fluid and interacting vacuum energy density: The curvature effect International Journal of Modern Physics D 10.1142/s021827182150022x The influence of the variable vacuum in the collapsing core is quantified by a phenomenological parameter as predicted by dimensional arguments and the renormalization group approach. It is also possible to recover the matter era, via a tracking of the matter energy density by the scalar field, as well as the inflationary and dark energy eras, which correspond to regimes where the cancellation mechanism becomes inefficient. For this purpose, we consider Models with total > 1 are always spatially closed (open for 1), although closed models can still expand to infinity if v 0. The complete set of exact solutions for all values of the free parameters are obtained and the influence of the curvature term on the gravitational collapse of the negative vacuum energy universe when the mat-ter temperature reaches a characteristic value where supersymmetry isstrongly broken. Quantum field theory has made some incredibly accurate predictions about the universe, but it has also made some of the worst. This leads to the expression. The expansion takes place while the false vacuum maintains a nearly constant energy density, which means that the total energy increases by the cube of the linear expansion factor, or at least a factor of 10 75. In this paper, we study the gravitational collapse of a spherical symmetric star constituted of matter interacting with vacuum energy density in the $\begingroup$ "It is well known that the observed energy density of the vacuum is many orders of magnitude less than the value calculated by quantum field theory." We discuss the gravitational collapse of a spherically symmetric massive core of a star in which the fluid component is interacting with a growing vacuum energy density. For most of quantum physics, the energy of the vacuum isnt a problem because only changes in the energy matter. It theoretically has infinite density. For most of quantum physics, the energy of the vacuum isnt a problem because only changes in the energy matter. But gravity responds to all energy, including the infinite density of the vacuum. If that is so, we should see the vacuum have vastly more gravity than anything else. We take the process of gravitational collapse for an anisotropic fluid interacting with a growing vacuum energy density by taking a complete physically general-relativistic approach in the background of spacetime curvature. The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Scientific and Technical Information Measured vs Predicted Energy Density. Applying this to the vacuum equation of state p = u implies = 0. Vacuum energy density resolved, thus dark energy solved by Houston Wade . Today, during an experiment in high-energy physics, the inconceivable happened. And one second later, the dreaded phenomenon has wiped out all matter on the planet. One of the less-than-perfect predictions is known as the vacuum catastrophe. From this, it follows that if the vacuum has positive energy density, the expansion of the universe will tend to speed up! This refers to the massive disagreement between the theoretical and measured values of the vacuum energy of the universe. At that point it was still possible to assert that the vacuum energy was a The problem of how to calculate this vacuum energy is arguably the most intriguing mystery in theoretical physics. where is a constant. The presence of the cavity allows only discrete modes, with a density of modes . For decades, physicists have tried to understand why this energy is so small, but no definitive solution has yet been found. L k = 3 In vacuum energy calculations with an ultraviolet cuto, divergences arise that clearly are related to the physics of boundaries. pulling all the stars and galaxies toward each other and eventually causing the universe to collapse. If Las Vegas were taking bets on dark energy, the odds would favor a concept known as vacuum energy or the cosmological constant. In the inflationary theory the Universe begins incredibly small, perhaps as small as 10 24 cm, a hundred billion times smaller than a proton. For all To do this, we use the equation E mc2.

The effects of vacuum energy can be experimentally observed in various phenomena such as spontaneous emission, the Casimir effect and the Lamb shift, and are thought to influence the behavior of the Universe on cosmological scales.Using the upper limit of the cosmological constant, the vacuum energy of free space has been estimated to be 10 9 joules (10 2 ergs), Abstract $ FRQVWDQW IRU WKH YDFXXP HQHUJ\ GHQVLW\ LQ WKH the Universe eventually slow and collapse in on LWVHOI WKH %LJ &UXQFK RU GLG LW DFKLHYH HVFDSH YHORFLW\ DQG ZLOO FRQWLQXH WR H[SDQG IRUHYHU WKH %LJ :KLPSHU " 7KLV GHEDWH ZDV UHVROYHG Despite the name, the vacuum still has quantum fields.A true vacuum is stable because it is at a global minimum of energy, and is commonly assumed to coincide with the physical vacuum state we live in. The star is made up of dark matter, D M, interacting with growing vacuum energy density, (t). So, the rate at which the vacuum makes the expansion of the universe accelerate is proportional to. The effect of the vacuum energy appears in the first Friedmann equation, vacuum energy is expected to create the cosmological constant, and produce the expansion of the universe. In principle this allows one to derive all the features of our expanding universe from a single parameter: the magnitude of the pre-big bang negative vacuum energy density. Expressing the field in term of creation and annihilation and after some simple algebraic manipulations we arrive at: Equation 7: The total vacuum energy, given by the integral over all momenta of the zero-point energy of the harmonic oscillator and over all space. On page 1180 of this The gravitational collapse of a spherical core, in which the fluid component interact with a growing vacuum energy density, filling an homogeneous and isotropic geometry with an arbitrary curvature parameter, is investigated. If this vacuum energy present in the volume of a proton is expanded to the radius of the Universe, the vacuum energy density of that Universe would equate to the cosmological constant value of 10 -29 g/cm 3. Interestingly the value found from this approach gives the value for dark matter. We consider a gravitational collapse process of the anisotropic fluid interacting with a growing vacuum energy density. Gravitational collapse of an interacting vacuum energy density with an anisotropic fluid. Equation 6: The energy of the vacuum. We take the process of gravitational collapse for an anisotropic fluid interacting with a growing vacuum energy density by taking a complete physically general-relativistic approach in the background of spacetime curvature. I know that the relationship between the zero-point energy of the vacuum and the cosmological constant is one of the unsolved problems in Cosmology. [citation needed] "Quantum field theory" is a framework for a large class of rather different specific models (e.g. But as I mentioned, for the vacuum the pressure is minus the energy density: P = -. Unfortunately, the oddballs were right.

The most recent measurement (that I know of) of the energy density of the vacuum is 5.96 x 10-27 kg/m 3. the energy density of the vacuum, and the large value suggested by the particle physics models [7], [8]. the Standard Model, many condensed matter models, etc.) According to General Relativity this vacuum energy should be present in the stress-energy tensor T00 component and lead to rapid universal collapse and not the expansion. We consider a gravitational collapse process of the anisotropic fluid interacting with a growing vacuum energy density. The observable universe has a Schwarzschild density of approximately 9.5 x 10-27 kg/m 3. We consider the gravitational collapse for closed, flat, and hyperbolic spacetime geometry [Formula: see text]. Request PDF | Gravitational collapse of an interacting vacuum energy density with an anisotropic fluid | We investigate the effects of anisotropic pressure on But gravity responds to

Recent observations appear to indicate that the vacuum energy density, although \unnaturally" small, may be non-zero, and indeed large enough to dominate the energy density of the Universe on cosmological scales. Figure 3.5. We consider the full general-relativistic treatment of this problem and obtain exact solutions for various forms of the equation of state (k , l) :p_{t} = k and p_{r} = l ,(l + 2 k) < - 1 connecting the tangential and radial pressures respectively. These observations raise the stakes further, by providing a very concrete challenge for fundamental physics: to calculate its value. Thus the vacuum energy is = = k k k E k 12 = = 0 First consider a one-dimensional system where two conducting reflecting mirrors are placed a distance L apart. Abstract: We investigate the virialization of cosmic structures in the framework of flat FLRW cosmological models, in which the vacuum energy density evolves with time. Deemed the worst prediction in physics, the vacuum catastrophe may have just been solved. Finally, we can all agree that the vacuum is just not living up to its name and is in fact teeming with energy. The question now is, how much energy?