It's a very efficient option for carbon capture, particularly if the heat for the endothermic SMR reaction is supplied by . (Running the analysis at a far lower gas leak rate of 1.54 percent only reduced emissions slightly, and emissions from blue hydrogen still remained higher than from simply burning natural gas.) Blue hydrogen relies on deceptive and ineffective carbon capture technologies and is still worse for the climate than burning coal. Grey hydrogen can turn "blue" when most of these carbon emissions are captured and, for example, sequestered underground. It has previously been touted as a better alternative because the production emissions are captured and stored deep underground.

Emissions of blue hydrogen are less than for gray hydrogen, but not greatly so: perhaps surprisingly, only by about 9% to 12%.

Blue hydrogen production process Finally, green hydrogen is obtained by splitting water atoms with electricity from renewable sources only, making it very expensive, though very "clean". The cleanest one of all is "green" hydrogen, which is generated by renewable energy sources without producing carbon emissions in the first place. In a sensitivity analysis in which the methane emission rate from natural gas is reduced to a low value of 1.54%, greenhouse gas emissions from blue hydrogen are still greater than from simply . The same chemical processing technique used to make gray hydrogen is also used to produce blue hydrogen. Blue hydrogen produced from natural gas with carbon capture and storage is often criticised because it is not inherently a zero-emission solution.

But when such statements are made, the . Decoding hydrogen types. 7 Natural gas is composed mostly of CH 4, and it simply is not possible to develop, process, store, and transport natural gas without some CH 4 being emitted to . Hydrogen has often been touted as a fuel of the future. Blue hydrogen may one day be the lowest-cost option to help decarbonize industrial heating, residential heating in extremely cold climates and heavy-duty vehicles. Blue hydrogen is, therefore, sometimes referred to as carbon neutral as the emissions are not dispersed in the atmosphere. Blue hydrogen is the same as grey hydrogen, but with integrated carbon capture and storage (CCS), thus considered to be a low-emission alternative. It is somewhat less polluting than grey hydrogen, but blue hydrogen is only capable of reducing emissions during its production process, rather than eliminating them completely . Decarbonization and the Potential Greenhouse Gas Emissions Performance of "Blue" Hydrogen . Its leakage rate has been estimated to be approximately 1.5 percent based on a combination of natural gas leakage data and what is known about the correlation between . Water is added to that mixture, turning the carbon monoxide into carbon dioxide and more hydrogen. "Not even a low-emissions fuel," blue hydrogen, they conclude has "no role in a carbon-free future . Half the hydrogen produced comes from the water and the other half from the . Combined total GHG emissions are still more than those from using either coal or natural gas directly for energy.

Researchers in the U.S. found that blue hydrogen produces 20% more carbon emissions in heat generation than using natural gas. The infrastructure bill signed into law by President Biden in November includes $9.5 billion dollars to support the creation of a clean hydrogen industry but much of the money is going to support the U.S. fracked gas industry under the guise of "clean" blue hydrogen. By targeting fugitive emissions, or by using power sources, blue . Blue hydrogen produced from fossil fuels with carbon capture and storage (CCS) can contribute to the Reduce dimension of the CCE by displacing the use of unabated fossil fuels in industrial and energy applications. But hydrogen produces 'substantial' emissions, study shows. For example, compared with SMR, it saves money by maximising carbon-capture efficiency and simplifying the process line-up, which offsets the oxygen production costs. Even in a sensitivity analysis in which the methane emission rate from natural gas is reduced to a low value of 1.54%, the study found greenhouse gas emissions from blue hydrogen were still higher . Blue hydrogen, promoted by the fossil. Blue hydrogen is a low-carbon fuel produced from natural gas in combination with carbon capture and storage (CCS). Blue hydrogen is also obtained from fossil fuels, but with techniques capable of capturing and storing CO emissions produced.

That type is known as "grey" hydrogen. Opponents claim that blue hydrogen isn't climate-friendly at all, but would in fact increase global warming. This rate drops to only 39% when including other greenhouse gas emissions from Shell's project.

"It does beg the question who's going to invest in blue hydrogen?" With high capture rates the researchers put the cost of producing blue hydrogen at $2.87 (US$2.09) a kilogram per tonne of CO2, while the cost of producing green hydrogen is $4.99 (US$3.64) with projections that it may come down to $2.55 (US$1.86). Industry groups say blue hydrogen will be critical to meeting the world's climate goals, and can be part of a broad strategy to reduce the world's greenhouse gas emissions by 2050.

. They also include the emissions generated by powering blue H2's associated carbon capture (CCS) systems. Just 48% of the plant's carbon emissions are captured, we found, falling woefully short of the 90% carbon capture rate promised by industry for fossil hydrogen projects. Emissions of blue hydrogen are less than for gray hydrogen, but only by about 9% to 12%. Reexamining Blue Hydrogen's Carbon Footprint. For example, compared with SMR, it saves money by maximising carbon-capture efficiency and simplifying the process line-up, which offsets the oxygen production costs. It prevents CO2 from entering the earth's atmosphere or only doing so in very small quantities. Production of blue hydrogen and subsequent use of hydrogen for power generation can be viewed as pre-combustion carbon capture for power from natural gas. However, the captured CO2 can be reused or is stored in geological formations. It is true that emissions for blue hydrogen are lower than gray hydrogen, but only by roughly nine to 12 percent. Biomass can have an important role in reducing carbon intensity of coal-based systems, as can application of advanced technologies . "Blue" hydrogenproduced through steam methane reforming (SMR) of natural gas or coal gasification, but with CO 2 capture and storageis being described as having low or zero carbon emissions.. Toyota Motor Corp.'s hydrogen engine racing car. Blue hydrogen is derived from methane in natural gas. Blue refers to hydrogen that has been made using natural gas, but with the CO 2 emissions captured and stored. Finally, green hydrogen is obtained by splitting water atoms with electricity from renewable sources only, making it very expensive, though very "clean". However, some argue that "low carbon" would be a more accurate description, as 10-20% of the generated carbon cannot be captured.

While so-called green hydrogen, derived from water, is produced with zero emissions, the production of 'blue' hydrogen results in sizable carbon emissions. Clean Hydrogen & Negative CO2 Emissions. State releases 'roadmap' to hydrogen economy. In fact, a peer-reviewed study published in August found that blue hydrogen might lead to even more greenhouse gas emissions over its life cycle than simply burning natural gas. Blue hydrogen as a strategy only works to the extent it is possible to store carbon dioxide long-term indefinitely into the future without leakage back to the atmosphere." This report explores the potential contribution of blue hydrogen, which has very low life-cycle CO 2 emissions, to climate mitigation. (GHG) impact for blue hydrogen of 132 grams CO2-equivalent per million Joules of gross fuel heat delivered (which we write as 132 . Unlike grey hydrogen, blue hydrogen has low emissions and doesn't contribute to the greenhouse effect.

"Blue hydrogen as a strategy only works to the extent it is possible to store carbon dioxide long-term indefinitely into the future without leakage back to the . In the future, turquoise hydrogen may be valued as a low-emission hydrogen, dependent on the thermal .

They state that current "blue" hydrogen test sites are only capturing 50-60% of plant-wide emissions, yet use 93% CO2 capture at hydrogen steam reformation plants in their modeling, and . As more regions commit to hydrogen, finding the right cost-optimal mix is crucial to its success.

The main reason why blue hydrogen has a very carbon footprint, the study argues, is natural gas production is responsible for high methane emissions, a greenhouse gas that is more than 80 times. Combining hydrogen with carbon capture and storage in places like Baytown supports ExxonMobil's larger 2050 . And emissions of leaked methane are rife throughout the process. In this photo taken Nov. 17, 2014, a Toyota Motor Corp.'s new hydrogen fuel cell vehicle Mirai arrives at a charge station near Toyota's showroom in . In the first study of its kind to consider blue hydrogen's environmental impact over its entire lifecycle, the US researchers found that methane emissions released when the fossil natural gas is . A chemical reaction occurs creating hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

"Blue hydrogen is hardly emissions free," wrote the researchers. Gray hydrogen emissions (represented in Column 1) consist predominantly of the CO generated on-site and the methane that has leaked along the natural gas supply chain. The CO 2 emissions are reduced via absorption from the hydrogen rich process gas (pre-combustion CO 2 Capture) or the reformer flue gas (post-combustion CO 2 Capture). Combined total GHG emissions are still more than those from using either coal or natural gas directly for energy. A cleaner version is "blue" hydrogen, for which the carbon emissions are captured and stored, or reused. A big concern at this point is atmospheric carbon emissions. It is only possible to capture up to 98% of the CO 2 emitted in the process of methane reforming, although levels of around 90% are often more realistic. A majority of the total greenhouse gas emissions from producing blue hydrogen come from emissions of unburned CH 4 associated with using natural gas, according to Howarth and Jacobson. The emissions from blue hydrogen are still staggeringly high. Grey, blue, green? by Robert Howarth & Mark Jacobson ("H&J") asks whether "blue" hydrogen (that is, hydrogen . Furthermore, the greenhouse footprint of blue hydrogen is " more than 20% greater than burning . This is partly because additional electricity is needed to run carbon-capture equipment, which, if derived from natural gas, leads to greater methane leakages and increased carbon emissions. Howarth and Jacobson state: "Perhaps surprisingly, the greenhouse gas footprint of blue hydrogen is more than 20 per cent greater than burning natural gas or coal for heat." If Alberta becomes a global leader in the production of blue hydrogen, the province's emissions - already the highest in Canada - will continue to increase. They're essentially colour codes, or nicknames, used within the energy industry to differentiate between the types of hydrogen. However, a new lifecycle study by a team from Stanford University and Cornell University has concluded that total greenhouse gas emissions from the production of blue hydrogen are quite high . Blue H2 worse than grey In their new study, the authors consider blue H2's lifecycle emissions including those associated with the mining, transport, storage, and burning of the fossil gas needed to produce hydrogen. "'Blue' fossil-based hydrogen is not zero emissions and risks a lock-in of high carbon infrastructure and jobs," says the study, adding that continued reliance on fossil gas could cause the UK to exceed its carbon budget. (Longden et al 2021) with a 56% capture rate, the emissions from blue hydrogen are still . Life cycle GHG emissions of blue hydrogen Figure 1. Pound for pound, methane is 86 times more powerful a greenhouse gas than is carbon dioxide over 20 years . Green hydrogen, blue hydrogen, brown hydrogen and even yellow hydrogen, turquoise hydrogen and pink hydrogen. We are presently living in a deep decarbonization era where global economies are faced with the pressures of weighing energy market scenarios to meet the long-term temperature goals set in the Paris Climate Agreement.While many can debate over the nature of carbon emissions, climate change, and related matters and if it is necessary pay attention to doomsday . "Blue hydrogen is hardly emissions free," according to an article in academic journal Energy Science and Engineering that alludes to the broad support for the fuel in Washington and beyond. The actions of reducing pollution need to happen in conjunction with the build out of green energy infrastructure. Gray hydrogen is abundant in use and technology right now but it releases much more CO2. And emissions of leaked methane are rife throughout the process. There is significant interest in using CCS technology to produce low-carbon blue hydrogen as a relatively cost . Overall, blue hydrogen's greenhouse gas footprint was 20% larger than burning natural gas or coal for heat, and 60% greater than burning diesel oil for heat, the study found. If the carbon dioxide emissions. (Tim Kelly/Reuters) Hydrogen has been billed as the clean energy of the future by . To further support our ambitions for net zero Scopes 1 and 2 greenhouse gas emissions across major operated assets by 2050, we are planning a world-scale blue hydrogen plant at . While being presented as a clean hydrogen plan for decarbonizing the energy system, the main focus of the hydrogen . . The use of CCS as a tool to reduce GHG emissions from polluting industrial processed is receiving substantial interest from markets and regulators. Blue hydrogen production is believed to have a slightly higher risk of leakage due to the added complexities of its production system, including an additional separation process. The Shell Blue Hydrogen Process offers significant advantages over alternative technologies, which include steam methane reforming (SMR) and autothermal reforming (ATR). That raises . "Blue hydrogen is hardly emissions free," the study reads. Blue hydrogen - which could form a key part of the government's plans to reduce greenhouse gas emissions - may be up to 20% worse for the environment than burning natural gas, researchers have . However, a new lifecycle study by a team from Stanford University and Cornell University has concluded that total greenhouse gas emissions from the production of blue hydrogen are quite high . Hydrogen has the potential to create limitless, emission-free, efficient energy. Green hydrogen is made from non-fossil sources and favoured by policy makers who are wary of keeping the fossil economy going, even with CCS. Clean Hydrogen & Negative CO2 Emissions focuses on designs and strategies for modular gasification-based systems enabling negative lifecycle emissions of greenhouse gases. . The nation is the first in the region to commit to an economy-wide reduction in emissions, he said. For both methods of production, it is crucial to account for all emissions in the . "Blue hydrogen as a strategy only works to . Column 2 shows the GHG emissions from an illustrative blue hydrogen facility that captures CO from both the reforming process and the combustion exhaust. The production of hydrogen in this manner releases massive quantities of CO2 (which are not captured) and is responsible for around 2% of global emissions today. 4 Whether for storing green electricity in the natural gas grid or as an energy supplier for generating electricity and heat - the hydrogen produced is . "Blue" hydrogenproduced through steam methane reforming (SMR) of natural gas or coal gasification, but with CO 2 capture and storageis being described as having low or zero carbon emissions..

So called "blue hydrogen", made using fossil fuels and capturing and storing the associated greenhouse gas emissions, has long been touted as less expensive than renewable alternatives and necessary during a transition phase to a low carbon society. Blue hydrogen is created from fossil sources, where the carbon emissions are captured and stored. The absorption is typically accomplished with an amine based solvent, but physical solvents are a viable alternative.